Momentum 

Newton's 2nd law of motion states that the force acting on a body is proportional to the rate of change of the momentum. (When the mass of the object is constant and with specially chosen units this law becomes the familiar F = ma).
There is also a quantity called angular momentum which is the product of the moment of inertia and angular velocity.
Albert Einstein, in his Special Theory of Relativity, revised the definition of momentum but that is not surprising as he revised the definitions of most of the quantities in classical mechanics e.g.  length, mass, velocity, time, energy etc.