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%3 N_20220131175954a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54a -------------------------------- Getting started with understanding Cricket.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54b -------------------------------- "One never understands Cricket, one simply gets used to it."        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954a_ColinWright->N_20220131175954b_ColinWright N_20220131175954c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54c -------------------------------- All games are weird, so this is an attempt to describe the game of cricket, starting with effectively no knowledge.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954a_ColinWright->N_20220131175954c_ColinWright N_20220203123640a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:36:40a -------------------------------- Nodes of this colour are the main line of description/explanation        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954c_ColinWright->N_20220203123640a_ColinWright N_20220131190553e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:05:53e -------------------------------- One of the players on the batting teams remains "Not Out" at the end of the innings.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36b -------------------------------- They are defending the Wicket, trying to prevent the ball from disarranging it.        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:05:53b -------------------------------- There are five main ways a batter can be dismissed.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736b_ColinWright->N_20220131190553b_ColinWright N_20220131175954f_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54f -------------------------------- Cricket is played on a large, roughly oval field of play.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:04:32a -------------------------------- In the approximate center of the field of play is a strip called "The Pitch".        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954f_ColinWright->N_20220131180432a_ColinWright N_20220131175954g_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54g -------------------------------- There are no fixed dimensions for the field.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954f_ColinWright->N_20220131175954g_ColinWright N_20220131175954h_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54h -------------------------------- Its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m) for men's cricket, and between 360 feet (110 m) and 420 feet (130 m) for women's cricket.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954g_ColinWright->N_20220131175954h_ColinWright N_20220204192551a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 19:25:51a -------------------------------- Note that this means that scoring a "Six" or "Four" is easier on some grounds and harder on others, because the boundary is not at a standard distance.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954h_ColinWright->N_20220204192551a_ColinWright N_20220131175954i_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54i -------------------------------- On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954h_ColinWright->N_20220131175954i_ColinWright N_20220131193455a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:34:55a -------------------------------- The batter at the other end is "Facing the Bowler", and is also said to be "On Strike".        (select only this node)     N_20220131193455b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:34:55b -------------------------------- The batter at the end from which the bowler is delivering the ball is said to be the "Non-Striker", and is at the Non-Striker's End".        (select only this node)     N_20220131193455a_ColinWright->N_20220131193455b_ColinWright N_20220202131735a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:17:35a -------------------------------- The batter On Strike stands "side-on" to the bowler, with their shoulders roughly parallel to the pitch.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193455a_ColinWright->N_20220202131735a_ColinWright N_20220131193736a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36a -------------------------------- The batter who is "On Strike" is attempting two things:        (select only this node)     N_20220131193455a_ColinWright->N_20220131193736a_ColinWright N_20220131193455a_ColinWright->N_20220131190553b_ColinWright N_20220131193736c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36c -------------------------------- They are trying to hit the ball in such a way as it takes the fielders significant time to retrieve and return it.        (select only this node)     N_20220203122955a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:29:55a -------------------------------- When a batter hits the ball, running is optional, not compulsory.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736c_ColinWright->N_20220203122955a_ColinWright N_20220131193736d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36d -------------------------------- If they succeed in this then the batters scamper, each to the other end.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736c_ColinWright->N_20220131193736d_ColinWright N_20220131175954e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54e -------------------------------- Each team has 11 players.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954e_ColinWright->N_20220131175954f_ColinWright N_20220131180238a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:02:38a -------------------------------- Temporary substitutions can be made: each team usually has a "12th man" (or "12th player") who can temporarily replace a player to allow players to have injuries attended, or to visit a convenience.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954e_ColinWright->N_20220131180238a_ColinWright N_20220203121403a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:14:03a -------------------------------- Broadly speaking, a substitute may not bat or bowl, may only substitute for a general fielding position, and may only be used in case of injury or illness. In detail, it's complicated.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180238a_ColinWright->N_20220203121403a_ColinWright N_20220131181440a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:14:40a -------------------------------- The game is played by each team trying to scores "Points" or "Runs".        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432a_ColinWright->N_20220131181440a_ColinWright N_20220131180432b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:04:32b -------------------------------- Length: 22 yd (1 chain, 20.12 m) Width: 10 ft (3.05 m)        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432a_ColinWright->N_20220131180432b_ColinWright N_20220131195529b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:55:29b -------------------------------- Now the second team to bat is "Chasing" the total set for them. Their aim is to score more runs/points within the allotted Overs, and without losing ten wickets.        (select only this node)     N_20220131195808a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:58:08a -------------------------------- So in the Short Form games, each team bats once. If the second team scores more runs then they win. If they fail to score the requisite runs in the given time, or if they lose ten wickets before getting the runs required, then the first team wins.        (select only this node)     N_20220131195529b_ColinWright->N_20220131195808a_ColinWright N_20220131180432c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:04:32c -------------------------------- The surface is flat and is normally covered with extremely short grass, but can be completely dry or dusty soil with barely any grass or, in some circumstances (that are rarely seen in high level cricket), made from an artificial material.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:04:32d -------------------------------- Over the course of a cricket match, the pitch is not repaired or altered other than in special circumstances - meaning that it will change condition.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432c_ColinWright->N_20220131180432d_ColinWright N_20220131180909a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:09:09a -------------------------------- At each end is a line called the "Bowling Crease"        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:09:09b -------------------------------- In the middle of the Bowling Crease is a fragile structure called "The Wicket"        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909a_ColinWright->N_20220131180909b_ColinWright N_20220131181005a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:10:05a -------------------------------- Parallel with the Bowling crease and 4 foot "inwards" of it is another line called the "Popping Crease".        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909a_ColinWright->N_20220131181005a_ColinWright N_20220131180909c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:09:09c -------------------------------- The Wicket is comprised of three vertical poles called "Stumps", topped by two small cylinders called bails. The bails rest in grooves in the tops of the stumps.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909b_ColinWright->N_20220131180909c_ColinWright N_20220131213634a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:36:34a -------------------------------- Here's a diagram:        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909c_ColinWright->N_20220131213634a_ColinWright N_20220202132153a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:21:53a -------------------------------- The stumps are referred to as the off-stump, middle-stump, and leg-stump.        (select only this node)     N_20220131180909c_ColinWright->N_20220202132153a_ColinWright N_20220131181005a_ColinWright->N_20220131213634a_ColinWright N_20220131181440b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:14:40b -------------------------------- A period of play during which one team is attempting to score runs is called an "Innings" ... which is both singular and plural.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181440a_ColinWright->N_20220131181440b_ColinWright N_20220131181440c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:14:40c -------------------------------- In most short forms of the game each team has one innings and whoever scores the most, wins.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181440b_ColinWright->N_20220131181440c_ColinWright N_20220131181440d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:14:40d -------------------------------- In longer forms of the game each team will have up to two innings. We'll come back to that.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181440c_ColinWright->N_20220131181440d_ColinWright N_20220131181726a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:17:26a -------------------------------- Each innings consists of one team "Batting" (and hence trying to score runs) and the other team "Fielding" (and hence trying to prevent runs from being scored).        (select only this node)     N_20220131181440c_ColinWright->N_20220131181726a_ColinWright N_20220131181726b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:17:26b -------------------------------- Before play starts a coin is flipped. The winning team of the coin toss decides whether to Bat first of Field first.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181726a_ColinWright->N_20220131181726b_ColinWright N_20220131181726c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:17:26c -------------------------------- The Fielding team has all 11 players on the field for the entire innings.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181726b_ColinWright->N_20220131181726c_ColinWright N_20220131181726d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:17:26d -------------------------------- Subject to temporary replacements by the 12th man.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181726c_ColinWright->N_20220131181726d_ColinWright N_20220131181726e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 18:17:26e -------------------------------- The batting team always has two players on the field, one at each end of the pitch.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181726c_ColinWright->N_20220131181726e_ColinWright N_20220131190354a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:03:54a -------------------------------- The Batting team starts with two batters on the pitch, and the Fielding team, also called the "Bowling" team, attempts to get them out.        (select only this node)     N_20220131181726e_ColinWright->N_20220131190354a_ColinWright N_20220131195628a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:56:28a -------------------------------- A batter who has been dismissed is said to be "Out", and has "Lost their wicket".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:05:53a -------------------------------- One player on the Bowling team "Delivers" the ball from one end of the pitch, attempting to "Dismiss" the Batter at the other end.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:21:53a -------------------------------- A bowler gets six consecutive legal deliveries from one end. This is called an "Over".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553a_ColinWright->N_20220131192153a_ColinWright N_20220131190553a_ColinWright->N_20220131193455a_ColinWright N_20220131190553a_ColinWright->N_20220131190553b_ColinWright N_20220131190553b_ColinWright->N_20220131195628a_ColinWright N_20220202143118a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:31:18a -------------------------------- These are Caught, Bowled, Run Out, Stumped, and LBW        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553b_ColinWright->N_20220202143118a_ColinWright N_20220131190553c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:05:53c -------------------------------- When a batter is dismissed they leave the field and are replaced by the next batter.        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553b_ColinWright->N_20220131190553c_ColinWright N_20220131190553d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:05:53d -------------------------------- When ten of the batters are dismissed, the innings is over.        (select only this node)     N_20220131190553c_ColinWright->N_20220131190553d_ColinWright N_20220131190553d_ColinWright->N_20220131190553e_ColinWright N_20220131190553d_ColinWright->N_20220131195529b_ColinWright N_20220131202358a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 20:23:58a -------------------------------- Not get out / be dismissed        (select only this node)     N_20220131202358a_ColinWright->N_20220131193736b_ColinWright N_20220131190636a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:06:36a -------------------------------- Bowled        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:06:36b -------------------------------- Caught        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636a_ColinWright->N_20220131190636b_ColinWright N_20220131190844a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:08:44a -------------------------------- If the bowler delivers the ball and it disarranges the wicket at the other end, without touching any of the fielding team players, then the batter has been "Bowled Out".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636a_ColinWright->N_20220131190844a_ColinWright N_20220131190949a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:09:49a -------------------------------- If the batter hits the ball with their bat, and the ball travels through the air and is caught by one of the fielding team, without the ball touching the ground, then the batter has been "Caught".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636b_ColinWright->N_20220131190949a_ColinWright N_20220131190636c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:06:36c -------------------------------- Run Out        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636b_ColinWright->N_20220131190636c_ColinWright N_20220131191208a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:12:08a -------------------------------- If the batter is "Out of their ground" (between the popping creases, not close to the wicket) and the wicket is disarranged by one of the fielders throwing the ball, then the batter has been "Run Out".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636c_ColinWright->N_20220131191208a_ColinWright N_20220131190636d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:06:36d -------------------------------- "Leg Before Wicket" (aka LBW)        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636c_ColinWright->N_20220131190636d_ColinWright N_20220131193736e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36e -------------------------------- A complete change of ends is called "A Run", and is the foundational way to score points.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736d_ColinWright->N_20220131193736e_ColinWright N_20220131190636e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:06:36e -------------------------------- Stumped        (select only this node)     N_20220131191843a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:18:43a -------------------------------- If the ball is delivered, ends up with the "Wicket Keeper", the wicket keeper disarranges the Wicket, and the batter is out of their ground, then they have been "Stumped".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636e_ColinWright->N_20220131191843a_ColinWright N_20220131191208b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:12:08b -------------------------------- A batter is safe if they or their bat (while being held) are grounded "Behind the Popping Crease".        (select only this node)     N_20220131191208a_ColinWright->N_20220131191208b_ColinWright N_20220131193736f_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:37:36f -------------------------------- On a given delivery and strike of the ball, multiple exchanges of ends can take place, thereby scoring multiple runs.        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736e_ColinWright->N_20220131193736f_ColinWright N_20220131190636d_ColinWright->N_20220131190636e_ColinWright N_20220131191606a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:16:06a -------------------------------- If the ball is delivered, several technical conditions are met, and the ball is prevented from striking the wicket by some part of the batters body, then they are adjudged "Out, LBW".        (select only this node)     N_20220131190636d_ColinWright->N_20220131191606a_ColinWright N_20220131191606c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:16:06c -------------------------------- If the batter tried to hit the ball, there are three conditions: the ball must not have pitched outside the leg stump, must have struck the batter in-line with the wicket, and must have been going on to hit the wicket.        (select only this node)     N_20220131191606a_ColinWright->N_20220131191606c_ColinWright N_20220131191606b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:16:06b -------------------------------- If the batter does not attempt to hit the ball with their bat, also known as "not offering a stroke" then it's enough that the ball would have gone on to hit the wicket.        (select only this node)     N_20220131191606a_ColinWright->N_20220131191606b_ColinWright N_20220131191606d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:16:06d -------------------------------- This is easier to explain with examples, but can all be justified as being reasonable. All of the conditions have arisen as a result of specific situations.        (select only this node)     N_20220131191606b_ColinWright->N_20220131191606d_ColinWright N_20220204111658a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 11:16:58a -------------------------------- "Not offering a stroke" means "Not making a genuine attempt to hit the ball with the bat, neither with force, nor to block."        (select only this node)     N_20220131191606b_ColinWright->N_20220204111658a_ColinWright N_20220131204850a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 20:48:50a -------------------------------- If the scores are level at the end of each team batting then the game is a "Tie". Depending on the competition, Ties may be allowed to stand, or they may be broken via various means such as a "Super Over".        (select only this node)     N_20220131195808a_ColinWright->N_20220131204850a_ColinWright N_20220131191843b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:18:43b -------------------------------- It's a special case of "Run Out".        (select only this node)     N_20220131191843a_ColinWright->N_20220131191843b_ColinWright N_20220131192529a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29a -------------------------------- A delivery has several requirements to be declared "legal".        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153a_ColinWright->N_20220131192529a_ColinWright N_20220131192153b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:21:53b -------------------------------- After an Over has been bowled a different player then bowls an over from the other end.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153a_ColinWright->N_20220131192153b_ColinWright N_20220131192153c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:21:53c -------------------------------- Thus Overs are bowled from alternating ends. Consecutive overs must be bowled by different players/bowlers.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153b_ColinWright->N_20220131192153c_ColinWright N_20220131192153d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:21:53d -------------------------------- In the various short form games, the number of Overs a player may bowl is limited, usually to a maximum of 1/5 of the number of overs in the innings.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153c_ColinWright->N_20220131192153d_ColinWright N_20220131204512a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 20:45:12a -------------------------------- So in a 20 Over game, a bowler may bowl no more than 4 Overs.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153d_ColinWright->N_20220131204512a_ColinWright N_20220131195529a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:55:29a -------------------------------- After the requisite number of Overs have been bowled, the innings is complete and the two teams change places.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192153d_ColinWright->N_20220131195529a_ColinWright N_20220131192529d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29d -------------------------------- In the short form game there are additional restrictions.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529a_ColinWright->N_20220131192529d_ColinWright N_20220131192529b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29b -------------------------------- Some part of the front foot must be behind the popping crease.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529a_ColinWright->N_20220131192529b_ColinWright N_20220131192529c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29c -------------------------------- The arm must be straight.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529a_ColinWright->N_20220131192529c_ColinWright N_20220131192916a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:29:16a -------------------------------- A delivery that does not satisfy these requirements is declared a "No Ball", one "Run" or "Point" is accredited to the Batting team, and the delivery does not count as one of the six in the Over, so an additional delivery must be made.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529b_ColinWright->N_20220131192916a_ColinWright N_20220131194310a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:43:10a -------------------------------- If the ball makes it over the boundary rope then:        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736f_ColinWright->N_20220131194310a_ColinWright N_20220131192529f_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29f -------------------------------- A delivery cannot be too wide of the batter's normal stance.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529d_ColinWright->N_20220131192529f_ColinWright N_20220203122156a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:21:56a -------------------------------- Most of these restrictions do have counterparts in the longer formats. Wides, for example, do exist in the long form game, but the restriction is much more lenient.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529d_ColinWright->N_20220203122156a_ColinWright N_20220131192529e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:25:29e -------------------------------- There are limits to how many deliveries are permitted to be above shoulder height (after bouncing) or above waist height (if "on the full").        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529d_ColinWright->N_20220131192529e_ColinWright N_20220131192529e_ColinWright->N_20220131192916a_ColinWright N_20220131193106a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:31:06a -------------------------------- A delivery that does not satisfy this requirement is declared a "Wide", a Run or Point is accredited to the Batting team, and the delivery does not count as one of the six in the over.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192529f_ColinWright->N_20220131193106a_ColinWright N_20220131193736a_ColinWright->N_20220131202358a_ColinWright N_20220131202358b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 20:23:58b -------------------------------- Score runs/points        (select only this node)     N_20220131193736a_ColinWright->N_20220131202358b_ColinWright N_20220131175954d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 17:59:54d -------------------------------- We start with two teams of people who want to have a contest. They decide on a game of Cricket.        (select only this node)     N_20220131175954d_ColinWright->N_20220131175954e_ColinWright N_20220131192529c_ColinWright->N_20220131192916a_ColinWright N_20220131210718a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:07:18a -------------------------------- A batter cannot be given out on a "No Ball" except "Run Out". They cannot be Caught, Bowled, Stumped, or LBW.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192916a_ColinWright->N_20220131210718a_ColinWright N_20220131193213a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:32:13a -------------------------------- Additionally, the next delivery may be declared a "Free Hit". In a "Free Hit" the batter cannot be given out in any way other than Run Out.        (select only this node)     N_20220131192916a_ColinWright->N_20220131193213a_ColinWright N_20220131193106a_ColinWright->N_20220131193213a_ColinWright N_20220131194310b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:43:10b -------------------------------- If it touched the ground before crossing the boundary then the batter (and their team) is credited with four runs.        (select only this node)     N_20220131194310a_ColinWright->N_20220131194310b_ColinWright N_20220131194310c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:43:10c -------------------------------- If it did *not* touch the ground then the batter (and their team) is credited with six runs.        (select only this node)     N_20220131194310a_ColinWright->N_20220131194310c_ColinWright N_20220131194310d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:43:10d -------------------------------- In each case the batters remain at, or return to, the ends where they started for this delivery.        (select only this node)     N_20220131194310b_ColinWright->N_20220131194310d_ColinWright N_20220131194310c_ColinWright->N_20220131194310d_ColinWright N_20220131194725a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:47:25a -------------------------------- There is one specialist fielding position: "Wicket Keeper". The Wicket Keeper is the only fielder permitted to wear gloves and (visible) shin pads.        (select only this node)     N_20220131194725b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 19:47:25b -------------------------------- In the modern games, players fielding in close positions will often wear safety helmets, and may wear shin pads *under* their uniforms.        (select only this node)     N_20220131194725a_ColinWright->N_20220131194725b_ColinWright N_20220131191606c_ColinWright->N_20220131191606d_ColinWright N_20220131202358b_ColinWright->N_20220131195529b_ColinWright N_20220131202358b_ColinWright->N_20220131193736c_ColinWright N_20220131190354a_ColinWright->N_20220131194725a_ColinWright N_20220131190354a_ColinWright->N_20220131190553a_ColinWright N_20220131210005a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:00:05a -------------------------------- In the Short Forms of the game the fielding team is usually required to have a certain number of players within a limited distance of the pitch, or of the stumps.        (select only this node)     N_20220131190354a_ColinWright->N_20220131210005a_ColinWright N_20220131195529a_ColinWright->N_20220131195529b_ColinWright N_20220131204512b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 20:45:12b -------------------------------- One Day International games are usually 50 Over games, and each bowler is then limited to at most 10 Over.        (select only this node)     N_20220131204512a_ColinWright->N_20220131204512b_ColinWright N_20220131180432b_ColinWright->N_20220131180432c_ColinWright N_20220131180432b_ColinWright->N_20220131180909a_ColinWright N_20220131210222a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:02:22a -------------------------------- Almost invariably aligned North/South        (select only this node)     N_20220131180432b_ColinWright->N_20220131210222a_ColinWright N_20220202141802a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:18:02a -------------------------------- And now ...  more details        (select only this node)     N_20220131204850a_ColinWright->N_20220202141802a_ColinWright N_20220131210005b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:00:05b -------------------------------- In theory this is to encourage the batters to "hit out" and try to hit the ball over the closer fielders, potentially making the game more exciting.        (select only this node)     N_20220131210005a_ColinWright->N_20220131210005b_ColinWright N_20220131210946a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:09:46a -------------------------------- There are also five less common ways to get out: Hit Wicket, Handling the Ball, Hitting the Ball Twice, Timed Out, and Obstructing the Field.        (select only this node)     N_20220131210946b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:09:46b -------------------------------- There are instances of these in First Class Matches, and even in Test Matches, but they are rare.        (select only this node)     N_20220131210946a_ColinWright->N_20220131210946b_ColinWright N_20220131213752a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/01/31 @ 21:37:52a -------------------------------- And a description of a "Wicket"        (select only this node)     N_20220131213634a_ColinWright->N_20220131213752a_ColinWright N_20220203123640b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:36:40b -------------------------------- Nodes of this colour are additional details.        (select only this node)     N_20220203123640a_ColinWright->N_20220203123640b_ColinWright N_20220203123640a_ColinWright->N_20220131175954d_ColinWright N_20220202131735b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:17:35b -------------------------------- The half of the field in front of them is said to be the "Off Side"        (select only this node)     N_20220202132047a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:20:47a -------------------------------- The names of the fielding positions are relative to the batter, so you have off-side fielders and on-side (or leg-side) fielders.        (select only this node)     N_20220202131735b_ColinWright->N_20220202132047a_ColinWright N_20220202131735c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:17:35c -------------------------------- The half of the field behind them is said to be the "On Side" or the "Leg Side".        (select only this node)     N_20220202131735c_ColinWright->N_20220202132047a_ColinWright N_20220202132047a_ColinWright->N_20220202132153a_ColinWright N_20220202132047b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 13:20:47b -------------------------------- The same is true for the names of the batting shots (also called strokes) that the batter might play.        (select only this node)     N_20220202132047a_ColinWright->N_20220202132047b_ColinWright N_20220202151216a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:12:16a -------------------------------- When bowled at a gentler pace, the ball can be spun vigorously. When it bounces it can then be made to deviate to a greater or lesser extent.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151216b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:12:16b -------------------------------- Spin is most effective when the ball bounces far enough in front of the batter for the deviation to take effect, but not so far as to let the better see what's happening and adjust their stroke.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151216a_ColinWright->N_20220202151216b_ColinWright N_20220202151514b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:15:14b -------------------------------- Some bowlers will bowl pure pace, but most faster bowlers will use some element of swing or seam.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150521b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:05:21b -------------------------------- Swing        (select only this node)     N_20220202151514b_ColinWright->N_20220202150521b_ColinWright N_20220202150521a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:05:21a -------------------------------- Seam        (select only this node)     N_20220202151514b_ColinWright->N_20220202150521a_ColinWright N_20220204111658b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 11:16:58b -------------------------------- This can be done either by holding the bat out of the way entirely, or having the bat in the line of the path of the ball, but hidden behind the legs.        (select only this node)     N_20220204111658c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 11:16:58c -------------------------------- The batter is given out "LBW" if the ball would have hit the wicket, but the batter's legs (or more generally their body) got in the way.        (select only this node)     N_20220204111658b_ColinWright->N_20220204111658c_ColinWright N_20220202141955a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:19:55a -------------------------------- Longer forms of the game.        (select only this node)     N_20220202141802a_ColinWright->N_20220202141955a_ColinWright N_20220202141955b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:19:55b -------------------------------- Types of delivery        (select only this node)     N_20220202141802a_ColinWright->N_20220202141955b_ColinWright N_20220202141955d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:19:55d -------------------------------- Fielding Positions        (select only this node)     N_20220202141802a_ColinWright->N_20220202141955d_ColinWright N_20220202141955c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:19:55c -------------------------------- Ways of "Getting Out" or "Being Dismissed"        (select only this node)     N_20220202141802a_ColinWright->N_20220202141955c_ColinWright N_20220202151922a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22a -------------------------------- Deliveries can be pitched "Short", "good", "Full", "Yorker", or "Full Toss".        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22b -------------------------------- A "Bouncer" is a Short ball, bouncing in the first 1/3 of the pitch and intended to reach the batter at or about head height.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922a_ColinWright->N_20220202151922b_ColinWright N_20220203121403b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/03 @ 12:14:03b -------------------------------- More information can be found here:        (select only this node)     N_20220203121403a_ColinWright->N_20220203121403b_ColinWright N_20220202141955c_ColinWright->N_20220131190636a_ColinWright N_20220202151922c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22c -------------------------------- A "Good Length" is 1/2 to 2/3 of the length of the pitch, and depending on the amount of bounce could reach the batter at any height from knee-high to chest-high.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922b_ColinWright->N_20220202151922c_ColinWright N_20220202142153a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:21:53a -------------------------------- The short forms of the game are usually limited as to how many overs are played in an innings.        (select only this node)     N_20220202141955a_ColinWright->N_20220202142153a_ColinWright N_20220202151922d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22d -------------------------------- A "Full Length Delivery" pitches from 2/3 to 3/4 of the distance to the batter and will be from shin-high to hip-high.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922c_ColinWright->N_20220202151922d_ColinWright N_20220202142153c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:21:53c -------------------------------- "T20" matches are 20 Overs each. The "Big Bash" in Australia has this format.        (select only this node)     N_20220202142758a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:27:58a -------------------------------- The Longer forms of the games are not limited by number of Overs, but by the time available.        (select only this node)     N_20220202142153c_ColinWright->N_20220202142758a_ColinWright N_20220202150438a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:04:38a -------------------------------- There are three main aspects to a delivery        (select only this node)     N_20220202141955b_ColinWright->N_20220202150438a_ColinWright N_20220202142153b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:21:53b -------------------------------- A "One Day International" is 50 Overs for each team.        (select only this node)     N_20220202142153a_ColinWright->N_20220202142153b_ColinWright N_20220202142153d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:21:53d -------------------------------- The most recent version is the T10, which is 10 Overs        (select only this node)     N_20220202142153a_ColinWright->N_20220202142153d_ColinWright N_20220202142153a_ColinWright->N_20220202142153c_ColinWright N_20220202142153b_ColinWright->N_20220202142758a_ColinWright N_20220202151216c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:12:16c -------------------------------- Or possibly not play a stroke at all.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151216b_ColinWright->N_20220202151216c_ColinWright N_20220202151308a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:13:08a -------------------------------- A batter, when confronted by spin, will sometimes move back to give themselves more time to see the ball, or come forward to play the ball close to the bounce, not giving the spin time to take effect.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151216b_ColinWright->N_20220202151308a_ColinWright N_20220202151922e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22e -------------------------------- A "Yorker" bounces at the batter's feet, and can go "under the bat".        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922d_ColinWright->N_20220202151922e_ColinWright N_20220202142153d_ColinWright->N_20220202142758a_ColinWright N_20220202142758b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:27:58b -------------------------------- Matches based on time come in several forms, but the "most extreme" form is the "Five Day Test Match".        (select only this node)     N_20220202142758a_ColinWright->N_20220202142758b_ColinWright N_20220202150056a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:00:56a -------------------------------- A day's play usually consists of three sessions of play: Morning, (then lunch) then afternoon (then tea) then evening.        (select only this node)     N_20220202142758b_ColinWright->N_20220202150056a_ColinWright N_20220202143859a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:38:59a -------------------------------- In a multi-day game, each team will usually have more than one innings. Specifically, they will usually have up to two innings        (select only this node)     N_20220202142758b_ColinWright->N_20220202143859a_ColinWright N_20220202143118a_ColinWright->N_20220131210946a_ColinWright N_20220202143118b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:31:18b -------------------------------- See the "Further Details" section of the chart.        (select only this node)     N_20220202143118a_ColinWright->N_20220202143118b_ColinWright N_20220202143118b_ColinWright->N_20220202141955c_ColinWright N_20220202131735a_ColinWright->N_20220202131735b_ColinWright N_20220202131735a_ColinWright->N_20220202131735c_ColinWright N_20220202143859b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:38:59b -------------------------------- A team can bat until they are "All Out", or they can "Declare" that they have scored enough. They are said to "Declare their innings closed".        (select only this node)     N_20220202144533a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:45:33a -------------------------------- Since the game is time-limited, sometimes it's necessary to declare to give enough time to dismiss the other team.        (select only this node)     N_20220202143859b_ColinWright->N_20220202144533a_ColinWright N_20220202144019a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:40:19a -------------------------------- Usually Team A bats, then Team B, then Team A again, then Team B.        (select only this node)     N_20220202143859b_ColinWright->N_20220202144019a_ColinWright N_20220202143859c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:38:59c -------------------------------- If the second team is a long way behind, then first team can ask them to bat again immediately. They are said to "Enforce the Follow-On".        (select only this node)     N_20220202143859e_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:38:59e -------------------------------- A "long way behind" depends on the specific competition, but is usually 150 or 200 runs.        (select only this node)     N_20220202143859c_ColinWright->N_20220202143859e_ColinWright N_20220204111658a_ColinWright->N_20220204111658b_ColinWright N_20220202151922f_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:19:22f -------------------------------- A "Full Toss" doesn't bounce, and is therefore generally much more predictable as to its trajectory.        (select only this node)     N_20220202151922e_ColinWright->N_20220202151922f_ColinWright N_20220204111658d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 11:16:58d -------------------------------- So in short, the batter cannot protect the wicket simply by standing in the way. They may only defend the wicket by fending the ball away with the bat.        (select only this node)     N_20220204111658c_ColinWright->N_20220204111658d_ColinWright N_20220202143859a_ColinWright->N_20220202143859b_ColinWright N_20220202143859d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:38:59d -------------------------------- If Team A's aggregate score does not exceed Team B's first innings score, then Team B need not bat a second time, and are said to "Win by an Innings and XX runs".        (select only this node)     N_20220202144019a_ColinWright->N_20220202143859d_ColinWright N_20220202144019a_ColinWright->N_20220202143859c_ColinWright N_20220202160513a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 16:05:13a -------------------------------- Broadly, Team B is chasing. If they get the runs they win. If they are All Out, they lose.        (select only this node)     N_20220202144019a_ColinWright->N_20220202160513a_ColinWright N_20220202154213a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:42:13a -------------------------------- If a spin bowler drops the ball short, a batter can sometimes "Dance Down the Pitch" to try to hit the ball shortly after it bounces. This will mean they are a long way "Out of Their Ground", in front of the crease, and if they miss the ball they will almost certainly be Stumped        (select only this node)     N_20220202151308a_ColinWright->N_20220202154213a_ColinWright N_20220202154213a_ColinWright->N_20220131190636e_ColinWright N_20220202145036a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:50:36a -------------------------------- If Team A gets Team B "All Out" before they (Team B) chase down the score, then Team A wins.        (select only this node)     N_20220202145244a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:52:44a -------------------------------- If neither is true, if the chasing team has not scored enough, but is not "all out", then neither team wins.        (select only this node)     N_20220202145036a_ColinWright->N_20220202145244a_ColinWright N_20220204192551b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 19:25:51b -------------------------------- (See elsewhere about how to score a 4 or 6)        (select only this node)     N_20220204192551a_ColinWright->N_20220204192551b_ColinWright N_20220204192551c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 19:25:51c -------------------------------- Also, the pitch might not be exactly in the middle, so it can be harder to score a 6 on one direction as compared with another.        (select only this node)     N_20220204192551a_ColinWright->N_20220204192551c_ColinWright N_20220202145036b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:50:36b -------------------------------- If Team B's aggregate score is greater than Team A's, then Team B wins.        (select only this node)     N_20220202145036b_ColinWright->N_20220202145244a_ColinWright N_20220202145244b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:52:44b -------------------------------- If the scores are not equal, the game is a draw.        (select only this node)     N_20220202145244a_ColinWright->N_20220202145244b_ColinWright N_20220202145244c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:52:44c -------------------------------- If the scores are equal, the game is a tie        (select only this node)     N_20220202145244a_ColinWright->N_20220202145244c_ColinWright N_20220202145244d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 14:52:44d -------------------------------- Yes, you can have a multi-day game that ends in a draw or tie.        (select only this node)     N_20220202145244b_ColinWright->N_20220202145244d_ColinWright N_20220202145244c_ColinWright->N_20220202145244d_ColinWright N_20220202160513a_ColinWright->N_20220202145036b_ColinWright N_20220202160513a_ColinWright->N_20220202145036a_ColinWright N_20220204192551b_ColinWright->N_20220131194310a_ColinWright N_20220202150056b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:00:56b -------------------------------- Play will usually start at 11:00 and finish at 18:30 or 19:00.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150056a_ColinWright->N_20220202150056b_ColinWright N_20220202150056d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:00:56d -------------------------------- There are also brief "Drinks Breaks"        (select only this node)     N_20220202150056b_ColinWright->N_20220202150056d_ColinWright N_20220202150056c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:00:56c -------------------------------- Timings will vary        (select only this node)     N_20220202150056b_ColinWright->N_20220202150056c_ColinWright N_20220202150438c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:04:38c -------------------------------- Movement        (select only this node)     N_20220202150438a_ColinWright->N_20220202150438c_ColinWright N_20220202150438b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:04:38b -------------------------------- Pace        (select only this node)     N_20220202150438a_ColinWright->N_20220202150438b_ColinWright N_20220202150438d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:04:38d -------------------------------- Length        (select only this node)     N_20220202150438a_ColinWright->N_20220202150438d_ColinWright N_20220202151514a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:15:14a -------------------------------- Balls can be delivered at a range of speeds. Varying the speed of delivery can be used to deceive the batter into playing through the anticipated path too soon, or not to give the batter enough time to get set and play a full stroke.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150438b_ColinWright->N_20220202151514a_ColinWright N_20220202150521c_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:05:21c -------------------------------- Spin        (select only this node)     N_20220202150438c_ColinWright->N_20220202150521c_ColinWright N_20220202150438c_ColinWright->N_20220202150521b_ColinWright N_20220202150438c_ColinWright->N_20220202150521a_ColinWright N_20220202150438d_ColinWright->N_20220202151922a_ColinWright N_20220202150930a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:09:30a -------------------------------- The ball is made of two halves with a raised seam. By bowling with the seam upright, or slanted, one can make the ball deviate off the pitch when it bounces.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150521a_ColinWright->N_20220202150930a_ColinWright N_20220202150838a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:08:38a -------------------------------- A ball bowled/delivered at a medium to high pace can be made to swing through the air. Swing can be gentle, intended to take the ball away from the centre of the bat and hoping to snick the edge, or dramatic, hoping to induce the batter to "chase" the ball and get a mis-hit.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150521b_ColinWright->N_20220202150838a_ColinWright N_20220202150521c_ColinWright->N_20220202151216a_ColinWright N_20220202151015a_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:10:15a -------------------------------- Seam and swing are often combined, with the ball swinging one way, then "seaming" the other.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150838a_ColinWright->N_20220202151015a_ColinWright N_20220202150838b_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/02 @ 15:08:38b -------------------------------- Swing tends to become more dramatic as the ball gets older. It's for this reason that the fielding team will preferentially polish one side of the ball.        (select only this node)     N_20220202150838a_ColinWright->N_20220202150838b_ColinWright N_20220202150930a_ColinWright->N_20220202151015a_ColinWright N_20220202151514a_ColinWright->N_20220202151514b_ColinWright N_20220204192551d_ColinWright    By ColinWright 2022/02/04 @ 19:25:51d -------------------------------- Finally, the ground is not always exactly level. In particular the Lord's Cricket Ground in London has a distinct and famous slope.        (select only this node)     N_20220204192551c_ColinWright->N_20220204192551d_ColinWright