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Integer factorisation is the problem of finding a

non-trivial factor of a given number. A factor of /n/ is

a number that divides /n,/ and non-trivial means neither

1 nor /n./

For example, a non-trivial factor of 11111 is 41, whereas

trivial factors are 1, -1, 11111 and -11111.

If /n/ is prime then it has no non-trivial factors. There

are techniques for identifying non-primes that do not

explicitly exhibit a factor, so the question of finding

a factor is interesting.

The RSA public key cryptosystem uses numbers that are hard

to factor, and if a way could be found to factor numbers

quickly then that would effectively break it.

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* FactoringIntegers_Part1

* http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Factoring+Integers